Mankong Collective Housing
At the heart of the Collective
Housing Program, is the belief that community members should
be responsible for their own development.
CODI works alongside the communities, offering technical assistance and
support through out the process. However, community members are the primary
actors and are ultimately responsible for the success and sustainability
of the project.
Launched in 2003, the Collective Housing Program puts
slum dwellers at the center of the development process by allowing them
to plan and manage solutions to their housing problems.
Instead of delivering housing units to individual poor
families, the Baan Mankong Program encourages existing slum communities
to form co-ops and develop their housing in a collective way; each participating
community would end up having a collective land title. This method is
designed to discourage speculators from buying off individual housing
units from the poor and selling them out to higher income groups. Collective
housing provides the security for low-income families so that they can
have access to jobs in the city - usually as day laborers and street vendors
- and where they can have the opportunity to get out of poverty.
CODI channels government funds in the form of infrastructure
subsidies and soft loans directly to the poor communities. Communities
then purchase land or negotiate long-term leases and upgrade the housing
stock as necessary.
To initiate a CODI-sponsored Collective Housing project, a community must
form a savings group and prove their financial responsibility. Over the
course of 6 months to 2 years, the community saves enough money for a
down payment of 10% of the estimated project costs. During the process,
the community forms small groups to plan a strategy to secure housing
and design a new layout. The following are the fives types of upgrading:
• On-site improvement: These projects
help solve land tenure problems, improve the physical environment and
basic services in existing communities with minimal adjustments to layouts
or plot sizes.
• Reblocking: Reblocking is a systematic way to improve
infrastructure and physical conditions in existing communities along with
land tenure security. Layouts of houses and roads are adjusted so that
new sewers, drains, walkways and roads can be conveniently installed.
• Land sharing: Land-owners and the community agree to share
the land. A portion of the land is either given, sold or leased to the
community where housing is to be reconstructed, allowing both parties
to settle their conflicts and occupy the land legally.
• Reconstruction: Existing communities are totally demolished
and rebuilt, after the community has secured the land either under long-term
leases or purchases. The land security encourages occupants to invest
in new reconstruction.
• Relocation: Occupants are relocated through land use
rights, ownership or long-term leases, all of which provide increased
housing security. Communities ideally relocate to land that is within
5km of their current location. However, some rural communities establish
new agricultural-based communities. Communities that choose to relocate
face reconstruction costs and, in some cases, land costs.
Soft loans are made to communities for the purchase of new land (in case
of relocation) and improvement or construction of houses. The interest
rate is subsidized by the government, allowing the communities to borrow
The ceiling for land and housing loans together is 300,000
Baht ($9,000) per family; housing loans alone are capped at 200,000 Baht
($6,000) per family. All loans are made collectively to the community
cooperative, not to individual families. With both housing and land loans,
the community cooperatives must save 10% of the amount they borrow from
CODI and keep the funds in a community saving account during the repayment
The government also provides specific subsidies to support
the development process.
- On-site Upgrading Subsidy: 25,000 baht (US$715) per family
for onsite-communities upgrades/repairs.
- Reconstruction Subsidy: 35,000 baht ($1000) per family
for communities rebuilding their settlement on the land they now occupy
or for communities relocating to different land and rebuilding there.
In special cases where the cost of filling land or infrastructure is very
high, the per family subsidy can go up to 45,000 baht (US $ 1,285)
- Additional Subsidies: Additional subsidies are available on
a case by case basis to help communities do heavy land filling if their
land is low-lying, to install household sewage treatment systems, to landscape
the newly upgraded settlement (20,000 Baht or $600 per community), to
liven up the visual character of the new community (200,000 Baht or $6,000
per community), to construct temporary houses in case of fire or eviction
(18,000 Baht or $500 per community), or to construct a community meeting
house (18,000 Baht or $500 per community).
Administrative Subsidy: A grant equal to 5% of the total infrastructure
subsidy is provided to the community organization and their partners for
administrative costs they incur.
Process Support Subsidy: This subsidy supports the various activities
that go along with the upgrading planning process, including exchange
visits between cities, seminars at various scales, meetings, coordination
costs, on-the-job training activities, support for the community network's
involvement in the upgrading process and salaries.
News and Updates on the Housing Program